State of Ohio Social Studies Standards

Geography

Grade: K
Geography
Human Environmental Interaction

Standard Number: 7.  
Identify key natural resources that are used in the students'

Location
Standard Number: 1.  
Identify and correctly use terms related to location, direction and distance including
a.   up/down
b.   over/under
c.   here/there
d.   front/back
e.   behind/in front of

Standard Number: 2.  
Recite home address.

Standard Number: 3.  
Make models and maps representing real places including the classroom.

Standard Number: 4.  
Distinguish between land and water on maps and globes.

Places and Regions
Standard Number: 5.  
Demonstrate familiarity with the schoolís layout.

Standard Number: 6.  
Describe the immediate surroundings of home (e.g., streets, buildings, fields, woods or lakes).

Grade: Gr. 1
Geography
Human Environmental Interaction
Standard Number: 7.  
Describe human adaptations to variations in the physical environment including
a.   food
b.   clothing
c.   shelter
d.   transportation
e.   recreation

Location
Standard Number: 1.  
Identify and correctly use terms related to location, direction and distance including
a.   left/right
b.   near/far

Standard Number: 2.  
Construct simple maps and models using symbols to represent familiar places (e.g., classroom, school or neighborhood).

Standard Number: 3.  
Identify and use symbols to locate places of significance on maps and globes.

Standard Number: 4.  
Locate the local community, state and the United States on maps or globes.

Places and Regions
Standard Number: 5.  
Identify and describe the physical features (lake, river, hill, mountain, forest) and human features (town, city, farm, park, playground, house, traffic signs/signals) of places in the community.

Standard Number: 6.  
Compare areas within the local community to identify similarities.

Grade: Gr. 2
Geography
Human Environmental Interaction

Standard Number: 5.  
Compare how land is used in urban, suburban and rural environments.

Standard Number: 6.  
Identify ways in which people have responded to and modified the physical environment such as building roads and clearing land for urban development.

Location
Standard Number: 1.  
Read and interpret a variety of maps.

Standard Number: 2.
  
Construct a map that includes a map title and key that explains all symbols that are used.

Standard Number: 3.  
Name and locate the continents and oceans.

Places and Regions
Standard Number: 4.  
Describe and locate landforms (plateaus, islands, hills, mountains, valleys) and bodies of water (creeks, ponds, lakes, oceans) in photographs, maps and 3-D models.

Grade: Gr. 3
Geography
Human Environmental Interaction

Standard Number: 7.  
Identify ways that physical characteristics of the environment (i.e., landforms, bodies of water, climate and vegetation) affect and have been modified by the local community.

Location
Standard Number: 1.  
Use political maps, physical maps and aerial photographs to ask and answer questions about the local community.

Standard Number: 2.  
Use a compass rose and cardinal directions to describe the relative location of places.

Standard Number: 3.  
Read and interpret maps by using the map title, map key, direction indicator and symbols to answer questions about the local community.

Standard Number: 4. 
 
Use a number/letter grid system to locate physical and human features on a map.

Standard Number: 5.  
Identify the location of the equator, Arctic Circle, Antarctic Circle, North Pole, South Pole, Prime Meridian, the tropics and the hemispheres on maps and globes.

Movement
Standard Number: 8.  
Identify systems of transportation used to move people and products and systems of communication used to move ideas from place to place.

Places and Regions
Standard Number: 6.  
Identify and describe the landforms and climate, vegetation, population and economic characteristics of the local community.

Grade: Gr. 4

Geography
Human Environmental Interaction

Standard Number: 8.  
Identify how environmental processes (i.e., glaciation and weathering) and characteristics (landforms, bodies of water, climate, vegetation) influence human settlement and activity in Ohio.

Standard Number: 9.  
Identify ways that people have affected the physical environment of Ohio including
a.   use of wetlands
b.   use of forests
c.   building farms, towns and transportation systems
d.   using fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides
e.   building dams

Location
Standard Number: 1.  
Use a linear scale to measure the distance between places

Standard Number: 2.  
Use cardinal and intermediate directions to describe the relative location of places.

Standard Number: 3.  
Describe the location of Ohio relative to other states and countries.

Standard Number: 4. 
 
Use maps to identify the location of major physical and human features of Ohio including
a.   Lake Erie
b.   rivers
c.   plains
d.   the Appalachian Plateau
e.   bordering states
f.   the capital city
g.   other major cities

Movement
Standard Number: 10.  
Use elevation, natural resource and road maps to answer questions about patterns of settlement, economic activity and movement.

Places and Regions
Standard Number: 5.  
Describe and compare the landforms, climates, population, vegetation and economic characteristics of places and regions in Ohio.

Standard Number: 6.  
Identify manufacturing, agricultural, mining and forestry regions in Ohio.

Standard Number: 7.  
Explain how resources, transportation and location influenced the development of cities and industries in Ohio including major industries such as oil, steel, rubber and glass.

Grade: Gr. 5
Geography
H
uman Environmental Interaction
Standard Number: 8.
  
Explain how the characteristics of different physical environments affect human activities in North America.

Standard Number: 9.  
Analyze the positive and negative consequences of human changes to the physical environment including
a.   Great Lakes navigation
b.   highway systems
c.   irrigation
d.   mining
e.   introduction of new species

Location
Standard Number: 1.  
Use coordinates of latitude and longitude to determine the absolute location of points in North America.

Standard Number: 2.  
Use maps to identify the location of
a.   the three largest countries of North America
b.   the 50 states of the United States
c.   the Rocky and Appalachian mountain systems
d.   the Mississippi, Rio Grande and St. Lawrence rivers
e.   the Great Lakes
   
Movement
Standard Number: 10.  
Use or construct maps of colonization and exploration to explain European influence in North America.

Places and Regions
Standard Number: 3.  
Describe and compare the landforms, climates, population, culture and economic characteristics of places and regions in North America.

Standard Number: 4.  
Explain how climate is influenced by
a.   earth-sun relationships
b.   landforms
c.   vegetation

Standard Number: 5.  
Explain, by identifying patterns on thematic maps, how physical and human characteristics can be used to define regions in North America.

Standard Number: 6.  
Use distribution maps to describe the patterns of renewable, nonrenewable and flow resources in North America including
a.   forests
b.   fertile soil
c.   oil
d.   coal
e.   running water

Standard Number: 7.  
Analyze reasons for conflict and cooperation among regions of North America including
a.   trade
b.   environmental issues
c.   immigration

Grade: Gr. 6
Geography
Human Environmental Interaction
Standard Number: 5.  
Describe ways human settlements and activities are influenced by environmental factors and processes in different places and regions including
a.   bodies of water
b.   landforms
c.   climates
d.   vegetation
e.   weathering
f.   seismic activity

Standard Number: 6.  
Describe ways in which human migration has an impact on the physical and human characteristics of places including
a.   urbanization
b.   desertification
c.   deforestation
   
Standard Number: 7.  
Describe ways humans depend on and modify the environment and the positive and negative consequences of the modifications including
a.   dam building
b.   energy production/usage
c.   agriculture
d.   urban growth

Location
Standard Number: 1.  
Place countries, cities, deserts, mountain ranges and bodies of water on continents on which they are located.

Standard Number: 2.  
Use coordinates of latitude and longitude to locate points on a world map.

Movement
Standard Number: 8.  
Explain push and pull factors that cause people to migrate from place to place including
a.   oppression/freedom
b.   poverty/economic opportunity
c.   cultural ties
d.   political conflicts
e.   environmental factors

Standard Number: 9.  
Identify and explain primary geographic causes for world trade including the uneven distribution of natural resources.

Places and Regions
Standard Number: 3.  
Explain the distribution patterns of economic activities and how changes technology, transportation, communication and resources affect those patterns including
a.   agriculture
b.   mining
c.   fishing
d.   manufacturing

Standard Number: 4.  
Identify and describe a variety of physical and human regions by analyzing maps, charts and graphs that show patterns of characteristics that define regions.

Grade: Gr. 7
Geography
Human Environmental Interaction

Standard Number: 4.  
Use physical and historical maps to analyze the reasons that human features are located in particular places.

Location
Standard Number: 1.  
For each of the societies studied, identify the location of significant physical and human characteristics on a map of the relevant region.

Standard Number: 2.  
On a map, identify places related to the historical events being studied and explain their significance.

Movement
Standard Number: 5.  
Describe the geographic factors and processes that contribute to and impede the diffusion of people, products and ideas from place to place including
a.   physical features
b.   culture
c.   war
d.   trade
e.   technological innovations

Places and Regions
Standard Number: 3.  
Describe changes in the physical and human characteristics of regions that occur over time and identify the consequences of such changes.

Grade: Gr. 8
Geography
Human Environmental Interaction

Standard Number: 2.  
Analyze how physical characteristics of the environment influenced population distribution, settlement patterns and economic activities in the United States during the 18th and 19th centuries.

Movement
Standard Number: 3.  
Explain how colonization, westward expansion, immigration and advances in transportation and communication changed geographic patterns in the United States.

Places and Regions
Standard Number: 1.  
Compare places and regions in the United States as they existed prior with the same places and regions today to analyze changes in land use and population, political, social and economic characteristics.

Grade: Gr. 9
Geography
Human Environmental Interaction

Standard Number: 4.  
Explain the causes and consequences of urbanization including economic development, population growth and environmental change.

Movement
Standard Number: 5.  
Analyze the social, political, economic and environmental factors that have contributed to human migration now and in the past.

Places and Regions
Standard Number: 1.  
Interpret data to make comparisons between and among countries and regions including
a.   birth rates
b.   death rates
c.   infant mortality rates
d.   education levels
e.   per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Standard Number: 2.  
Explain how differing points of view play a role in conflicts over territory and resources.

Standard Number: 3.  
Explain how political and economic conditions, resources, geographic locations and cultures have contributed to cooperation and conflict.

Grade: Gr. 10
Geography
Human Environmental Interaction

Standard Number: 2.  
Describe how changes in technology, transportation and communication affect the location and patterns of economic activities and use of productive resources.

Movement
Standard Number: 3.  
Analyze the geographic processes that contributed to changes i n American society including
a.   industrialization and post-industrialization
b.   urbanization and suburbanization
c.   immigration

Places and Regions
Standard Number: 1.  
Explain how perceptions and characteristics of geographic regions in the United States have changed over time including
a.   urban areas
b.   wilderness
c.   farmland
d.   centers of industry and technology

Grade: Gr. 11
Geography
Application of Geography

Standard Number: 3.  
Compare and evaluate alternative public policies for the use of land and natural resources at all levels of government.

Standard Number: 4.  
Identify and analyze the changing political geography at the local, state, national and international levels including
a.   annexation
b.   zoning
c.   congressional reapportionment
d.   changes in international boundaries

Human Environmental Interaction
Standard Number: 2.  
Analyze and evaluate the consequences of a governmental policy that affects the physical characteristics of a place or region.

Places and Regions
Standard Number: 1.  
Explain how government decisions reflect a societyís values about land (e.g., zoning, park development or toxic waste disposal).

Grade: Gr. 12
Geography
Application of Geography

Standard Number: 4.  
Use appropriate data sources and tools to gather, manipulate, interpret communicate geographic information related to civic/global issues.