State of Ohio Science Standards

Physical Science

Grade: K
Physical Sciences
Forces and Motion

Standard Number: 4.  
Explore that things can be made to move in many different ways such as straight, zigzag, up and down, round and round, back and forth, or fast and slow.

Standard Number: 5.  
Investigate ways to change how something is moving (e.g., push, pull).

Nature of Matter
Standard Number: 1.  
Demonstrate that objects are made of parts (e.g., toys, chairs).

Standard Number: 2.  
Examine and describe objects according to the materials that make up the object (e.g., wood, metal, plastic, cloth).

Standard Number: 3.  
Describe and sort objects by one or more properties (e.g., size, color, shape).

Grade: Gr. 1
Physical Sciences
Forces of Motion

Standard Number: 5.  
Explore the effects some objects have on others even when the two objects might not touch (e.g., magnets).

Standard Number: 6.  
Investigate a variety of ways to make things move and what causes them to change speed, direction and/or stop.

Nature of Energy
Standard Number: 7.  
Explore how energy makes things work (e.g., batteries in a toy, electricity turning fan blades).

Standard Number: 8.  
Recognize that the Sun is an energy source that warms the land, air and water.

Standard Number: 9.  
Describe that energy can be obtained from many sources in many ways (e.g., food, gasoline, electricity or batteries).

Nature of Matter
Standard Number: 1.  
Classify objects according to the materials they are made of and their physical properties.

Standard Number: 2.  
Investigate that water can change from liquid to solid or solid to liquid.

Standard Number: 3.  
Explore and observe that things can be done to materials to change their properties (e.g., heating, freezing, mixing, cutting, wetting, dissolving, bending, exposing to light).

Standard Number: 4.  
Explore changes that greatly change the properties of an object (e.g., burning paper) and changes that leave the properties largely unchanged (e.g., tearing paper).

Grade: Gr. 2
Physical Sciences
Forces and Motion

Standard Number: 1.  
Explore how things make sound (e.g., rubber bands, tuning fork, strings).

Standard Number: 2.  
Explore and describe sounds (e.g., high, low, soft, loud) produced by vibrating objects.

Standard Number: 3.  
Explore with flashlights and shadows that light travels in a straight line until it strikes an object.

Grade: Gr. 3
Physical Sciences
Forces and Motion

Standard Number: 1.  
Describe an objects position by locating it relative to another object or the background.

Standard Number: 2.  
Describe an objects motion by tracing and measuring its position over time.

Standard Number: 3.  
Identify contact/noncontact forces that affect motion of an object (e.g., gravity, magnetism, collision).

Standard Number: 4.  
Predict the changes when an object experiences a force (e.g., a push or pull, weight, friction).

Grade: Gr. 4
Physical Sciences
Nature of Energy

Standard Number: 5.  
Compare ways the temperature of an object can be changed (e.g., rubbing, heating, bending of metal).

Nature of Matter
Standard Number: 1.  
Identify characteristics of a simple physical change (e.g., heating or cooling can change water from one state to another and the change is reversible).

Standard Number: 2.  
Identify characteristics of a simple chemical change. When a new material is made by combining two or more materials, it has chemical properties that are different from the original materials (e.g., burning paper, vinegar and baking soda).

Standard Number: 3.  
Describe objects by the properties of the materials from which they are made and that these properties can be used to separate or sort a group of objects (e.g., paper, glass, plastic, metal).

Standard Number: 4.  
Explain that matter has different states (e.g., solid, liquid and gas) and that each state has distinct physical properties.

Grade: Gr. 5
Physical Sciences
Nature of Energy

Standard Number: 1.  
Define temperature as the measure of thermal energy and describe the way it is measured.

Standard Number: 2.  
Trace how thermal energy can transfer from one object to another by conduction.

Standard Number: 3.
  
Describe that electrical current in a circuit can produce thermal energy, light, sound and/or magnetic forces.

Standard Number: 4.  
Trace how electrical current travels by creating a simple electric circuit that will light a bulb.

Standard Number: 5.  
Explore and summarize observations of the transmission, bending (refraction) and reflection of light.

Standard Number: 6.  
Describe and summarize observations of the transmission, reflection, and absorption of sound.

Standard Number: 7.  
Describe that changing the rate of vibration can vary the pitch of a sound.

Grade: Gr. 6
Physical Sciences
Nature of Energy

Standard Number: 5.  
Explain that the energy found in nonrenewable resources such as fossil fuels (e.g., oil, coal, natural gas) originally came from the Sun and may renew slowly over millions of years.

Standard Number: 6.  
Explain that energy derived from renewable resources such as wind and water is assumed to be available indefinitely.

Standard Number: 7.  
Describe how electric energy can be produced from a variety of sources (e.g., Sun, wind, coal).

Standard Number: 8.  
Describe how renewable and nonrenewable energy resources can be managed (e.g., fossil fuels, trees, water).

Nature of Matter
Standard Number: 1.  
Explain that equal volumes of different substances usually have different masses.

Standard Number: 2.  
Describe that in a chemical change new substances are formed with different properties than the original substance (e.g., rusting, burning).

Standard Number: 3.  
Describe that in a physical change (e.g., state, shape, size) the chemical properties of a substance remain unchanged.

Standard Number: 4.
  
Describe that chemical and physical changes occur all around us (e.g., in the human body, cooking, industry).

Grade: Gr. 7
Physical Sciences
Nature of Energy

Standard Number: 2.  
Describe how an object can have potential energy due to its position or chemical composition and can have kinetic energy due to its motion.

Standard Number: 3.  
Identify different forms of energy (e.g., electrical, mechanical, chemical, thermal, nuclear, radiant and acoustic).

Standard Number: 4.  
Explain how energy can change forms but the total amount of energy remains constant.

Standard Number: 5.  
Trace energy transformation in a simple closed system (e.g., a flashlight).

Nature of Matter
Standard Number: 1.  
Investigate how matter can change forms but the total amount of matter remains constant.

Grade: Gr. 8
Physical Sciences
Forces and Motion

Standard Number: 1.  
Describe how the change in the position (motion) of an object is always judged and described in comparison to a reference point.

Standard Number: 2.
  
Explain that motion describes the change in the position of an object (characterized by a speed and direction) as time changes.

Standard Number: 3.  
Explain that an unbalanced force acting on an object changes that objectís speed and/or direction.

Nature of Energy
Standard Number: 4.  
Demonstrate that waves transfer energy.

Standard Number: 5.  
Demonstrate that vibrations in materials may produce waves that spread away from the source in all directions (e.g., earthquake waves, sound waves).

Grade: Gr. 9
Physical Sciences
Forces and Motion

Standard Number: 21.  
Demonstrate that motion is a measurable quantity that depends on the observerís frame of reference and describe the objectís motion in terms of position, velocity, acceleration and time.

Standard Number: 22.  
Demonstrate that any object does not accelerate (remains at rest or maintains a constant speed and direction of motion) unless an unbalanced (net) force acts on it.

Standard Number: 23.  
Explain the change in motion (acceleration) of an object. Demonstrate that the acceleration is proportional to the net force acting on the object and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. (Fnet = ma. Note that weight is the gravitational force on a mass.)

Standard Number: 24.  
Demonstrate that whenever one object exerts a force on another, an equal amount of force is exerted back on the first object.

Standard Number: 25.  
Demonstrate the ways in which frictional forces constrain the motion of objects (e.g., a car traveling around a curve, a block on an inclined plane, a person running, an airplane in flight).

Historical Perspectives and Scientific Revolutions
Standard Number: 26.  
Use historical examples to explain how new ideas are limited by the context in which they are conceived; are often initially rejected by the scientific establishment; sometimes spring from unexpected findings; and usually grow slowly through contributions from many different investigators (e.g., atomic theory, quantum theory, Newtonian mechanics).

Standard Number: 27.  
Describe advances and issues in physical science that have important, longlasting effects on science and society (e.g., atomic theory, quantum theory, Newtonian mechanics, nuclear energy, nanotechnology, plastics and ceramics and communication technology).

Nature of Energy
Standard Number: 11.  
Explain how thermal energy exists in the random motion and vibrations of atoms and molecules. Recognize that the higher the temperature, the greater the average atomic or molecular motion, and during changes of state the temperature remains constant.

Standard Number: 12.  
Explain how an objectís kinetic energy depends on its mass and its speed (KE=1/2mv squared).

Standard Number: 13.  
Demonstrate that near Earthís surface an objectís gravitational potential energy depends upon its weight (mg where m is the objectís mass and g is the acceleration due to gravity) and height (h) above a reference surface (PE=mgh).

Standard Number: 14.  
Summarize how nuclear reactions convert a small amount of matter into a large amount of energy. (Fission involves the splitting of a large nucleus into smaller nuclei; fusion is the joining of two small nuclei into a larger nucleus at extremely high energies.)

Standard Number: 15.  
Trace the transformations of energy within a system (e.g., chemical to electrical to mechanical) and recognize that energy is conserved. Show that these transformations involve the release of some thermal energy.

Standard Number: 16.  
Illustrate that chemical reactions are either endothermic or exothermic (e.g., cold packs, hot packs and the burning of fossil fuels).

Standard Number: 17.  
Demonstrate that thermal energy can be transferred by conduction, convection or radiation (e.g., through materials by the collision of particles, moving air masses or across empty space by forms of electromagnetic radiation).

Standard Number: 18.  
Demonstrate that electromagnetic radiation is a form of energy. Recognize that light acts as a wave. Show that visible light is a part of the electromagnetic spectrum (e.g., radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays).

Standard Number: 19.  
Show how the properties of a wave depend on the properties of the medium through which it travels. Recognize that electromagnetic waves can be propagated without a medium.

Standard Number: 20.  
Describe how waves can superimpose on one another when propagated in the same medium. Analyze conditions in which waves can bend around corners, reflect off surfaces, are absorbed by materials they enter, and change direction and speed when entering a different material.

Nature of Matter
Standard Number: 1.  
Recognize that all atoms of the same element contain the same number of protons, and elements with the same number of protons may or may not have the same mass. Those with different masses (different numbers of neutrons) are called isotopes.

Standard Number: 2.  
Illustrate that atoms with the same number of positively charged protons and negatively charged electrons are electrically neutral.

Standard Number: 3.  
Describe radioactive substances as unstable nuclei that undergo random spontaneous nuclear decay emitting particles and/or high energy wavelike radiation.

Standard Number: 4.  
Show that when elements are listed in order according to the number of protons (called the atomic number), the repeating patterns of physical and chemical properties identify families of elements. Recognize that the periodic table was formed as a result of the repeating pattern of electron configurations.

Standard Number: 5.  
Describe how ions are formed when an atom or a group of atoms acquire an unbalanced charge by gaining or losing one or more electrons.

Standard Number: 6.  
Explain that the electric force between the nucleus and the electrons hold an atom together. Relate that on a larger scale, electric forces hold solid and liquid materials together (e.g., salt crystals, water).

Standard Number: 7.  
Show how atoms may be bonded together by losing, gaining or sharing electrons and that in a chemical reaction, the number, type of atoms and total mass must be the same before and after the reaction (e.g., writing correct chemical formulas and writing balanced chemical equations).

Standard Number: 8.  
Demonstrate that the pH scale (0-14) is used to measure acidity and classify substances or solutions as acidic, basic, or neutral.

Standard Number: 9.  
Investigate the properties of pure substances and mixtures (e.g., density, conductivity, hardness, properties of alloys, superconductors and semiconductors).

Standard Number: 10.  
Compare the conductivity of different materials and explain the role of electrons in the ability to conduct electricity.

Grade: Gr. 11
Physical Sciences
Forces and Motion

Standard Number: 3.  
Describe real world examples showing that all energy transformations tend toward disorganized states (e.g., fossil fuel combustion, food pyramids, electrical use).

Standard Number: 4.  
Explain how electric motors and generators work (e.g., relate that electricity and magnetism are two aspects of a single electromagnetic force). Investigate that electric charges in motion produce magnetic fields and a changing magnetic field creates an electric field.

Nature of Matter
Standard Number: 1.  
Explain that elements with the same number of protons may or may not have the same mass and those with different masses (different numbers of neutrons) are called isotopes. Some of these are radioactive.

Standard Number: 2.  
Explain that humans have used unique bonding of carbon atoms to make a variety of molecules (e.g., plastics).

Grade: Gr. 12
Physical Sciences
Forces and Motion

Standard Number: 5.  
Use and apply the laws of motion to analyze, describe and predict the effects of forces on the motions of objects mathematically.

Standard Number: 6.  
Recognize that the nuclear forces that hold the nucleus of an atom together, at nuclear distances, are stronger than the electric forces that would make it fly apart.

Standard Number: 7.  

Recognize that nuclear forces are much stronger than electromagnetic forces, and electromagnetic forces are vastly stronger than gravitational forces. The strength of the nuclear forces explains why greater amounts of energy are released from nuclear reactions (e.g., from atomic and hydrogen bombs and in the Sun and other stars).

Standard Number: 8.  
Describe how the observed wavelength of a wave depends upon the relative motion of the source and the observer (Doppler effect). If either is moving towards the other, the observed wavelength is shorter; if either is moving away, the observed wavelength is longer (e.g., weather radar, bat echoes, police radar).

Standard Number: 9.  
Describe how gravitational forces act between all masses and always create a force of attraction. Recognize that the strength of the force is proportional to the masses and weakens rapidly with increasing distance between them.

Historical Perspectives and Scientific Revolutions
Standard Number: 14.  
Use historical examples to explain how new ideas are limited by the context in which they are conceived; are often initially rejected by the scientific establishment; sometimes spring from unexpected findings; and usually grow slowly through contributions from many different investigators (e.g., nuclear energy, quantum theory, theory of relativity).

Standard Number: 15.  
Describe concepts/ideas in physical sciences that have important, longlasting effects on science and society (e.g., quantum theory, theory of relativity, age of the universe).

Nature of Energy
Standard Number: 10.  
Explain the characteristics of isotopes. The nucleus of radioactive isotopes is unstable and spontaneously decays emitting particles and/or wavelike radiation. It cannot be predicted exactly when, if ever, an unstable nucleus will decay, but a large group of identical nuclei decay at a predictable rate.

Standard Number: 11.  
Use the predictability of decay rates and the concept of half-life to explain how radioactive substances can be used in estimating the age of materials.

Standard Number: 12.  
Describe how different atomic energy levels are associated with the electron configurations of atoms and electron configurations (and/or conformations) of molecules.

Standard Number: 13.  
Explain how atoms and molecules can gain or lose energy in particular discrete amounts (quanta or packets); therefore they can only absorb or emit light at the wavelengths corresponding to these amounts.

Nature of Matter
Standard Number: 1.  
Explain how atoms join with one another in various combinations in distinct molecules or in repeating crystal patterns.

Standard Number: 2.  
Describe how a physical, chemical or ecological system in equilibrium may return to the same state of equilibrium if the disturbances it experiences are small. Large disturbances may cause it to escape that equilibrium and eventually settle into some other state of equilibrium.

Standard Number: 3.  
Explain how all matter tends toward more disorganized states and describe real world examples (e.g., erosion of rocks, expansion of the universe).

Standard Number: 4.  
Recognize that at low temperatures some materials become superconducting and offer little or no resistance to the flow of electrons.